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Free Railway Ticket for Students,

Free Railway Ticket for Patients,

Free Railway Ticket for Disabled,

Free Railway Ticket for Youth Groups,

Free Railway Ticket for Cancer Patient,

Free Railway Ticket for Senior Citizens,

Rail Concession to Patients,

Free Rail Journey,

Rail Ticket Concessions,

Train Fare Concessions,

Rail Reservation,

Train Reservation,

Train journey,

भारतीय रेल किराये में विभिन्न प्रकार की छूट/रियायत की जानकारी यहाँ से प्राप्त करें-

Indian Railways providing many facilities to all its passengers, in the same manner it provides Rail Ticket Concession to various types of passengers like Students, Sick Passengers, Press reporter, Players, War Gallantry awardees and many more others.

A list is given below for getting benefits of the said concessions along with Certificates required for concession -

Much other information is also available in short term for Examination purpose for students as well as unemployed personnel to get success in any competition exam.

Other Useful information about Indian Railways is available here -

ABOUT INDIAN RAILWAYS:      Indian Railways were first introduced to India in the year 1853 from Mumbai to Thane. In 1951 the systems were Nationalized as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India and are assigned codes identifying their gauge, kind of power and type of operation. Its operations cover twenty nine states and seven union territories and also provide limited international services to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

The history of rail transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. The core of the pressure for building Railways in India came from London. In 1848, there was not a single kilometer of railway line in India. The country's first railway, built by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR), opened in 1853, between Bombay and Thane. A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the expansion of the railways from 1857 on wards. The Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line of the East Indian Railway had been opened in June 1867. Brereton was responsible for linking this with the GIPR, resulting in a combined network of 6,400 km (4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta. This route was officially opened on 7 March 1870 and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that "it was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system".

By 1875, about £95 million were invested by British companies in India. Guaranteed railways. By 1880 the network had a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 mi), mostly radiating inward from the 3 major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896, sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railways.
In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to the modern day states of Ahom Kingdom, Rajputhana and Madras Presidency and soon various autonomous kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. In 1905, an early Railway Board was constituted, but the powers were formally vested under Lord Curzon. It served under the Department of Commerce and Industry and had a government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.

In 1907 almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government. The following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. With the arrival of World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. With the end of the war, the railways were in a state of disrepair and collapse. Large scale corruption by British officials involved in the running of these railways companies was rampant. Profits were never reinvested in the development of British colonial India.

In 1920, with the network having expanded to 61,220 km (38,040 mi), a need for central management was mooted by Sir William Acworth. Based on the East India Railway Committee chaired by Acworth, the government took over the management of the Railways and detached the finances of the Railways from other governmental revenues.

The period between 1920 and 1929, was a period of economic boom; there were 41,000 mi (66,000 km) of railway lines serving the country; the railways represented a capital value of some 687 million sterling; and they carried over 620 million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods each year. Following the Great Depression, the railways suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second World War severely crippled the railways. Starting 1939, about 40% of the rolling stock including locomotives and coaches was taken to the Middle East, the railways workshops were converted to ammunitions workshops and many railway tracks were dismantled to help the Allies in the war. By 1946, all rail systems had been taken over by the government.

RAILWAY ZONES:      Indian Railways is divided into 17 zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952 and seventeen in 2003. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions.

Each zone is headed by a general manager, who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions, under the control of divisional railway managers (DRM). The divisional officers, of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial, security and safety branches, report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the station masters, who control individual stations and train movements through the track territory under their stations' administration.

Date Established
Route kms
14-04- 1951
Madurai and
05-11- 1951
and Nagpur
05-11- 1951
Moradabad and 
Lucknow and 
02-10- 1966
HRBC House, St. George's gate roadKolkata
Bikaner and 

TECHNICAL DETAILS:    Track and gauge - Indian railways uses 4 types of gauges:

1. Broad gauge:              1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in).
2. Standard gauge:         1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in). 
3. Meter gauge:               1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in). 
4. 2 Narrow gauges:        762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft).

Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 75 to 160 km/h (47 to 99 mph).

The total length of track used by Indian Railways is about 115,000 km (71,000 mi) while the total route length of the network is 65,000 km (40,000 mi). About 24,891 km (15,467 mi) or 38% of the route-kilometre was electrified, as of 31 March 2014.

Broad gauge is the predominant gauge used by Indian Railways. 

Indian broad gauge—1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)—is the most widely used gauge in India with 105,000 km (65,000 mi) of track length (91% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 56,000 km (35,000 mi) of route-kilometre (86% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges).

In some regions with less traffic, the metre gauge (1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in)) is common, although the Unigauge project is in progress to convert all tracks to broad gauge.

The metre gauge has about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of track length (7% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of route-kilometre (10% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges).

The Narrow gauges are present on a few routes, lying in hilly terrains and in some erstwhile private railways (on cost considerations), which are usually difficult to convert to broad gauge.

Narrow gauges have 2,000 route- kilometre. The Kalka-Shimla Railway, the Kangra Valley Railway and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway are three notable hill lines that use narrow gauge, but the Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a metre gauge track. These 4 rail lines will not be converted under the Unigauge project.

Map of Indian Railways network with population density

The share of broad gauge in the total route-kilometre has been steadily rising, increasing from 47% (25,258 route-km) in 1951 to 86% in 2012 whereas the share of metre gauge has declined from 45% (24,185 route-km) to 10% in the same period and the share of narrow gauges has decreased from 8% to 3%. About 24,891 route-km of Indian railways is electrified.

Sleepers (ties) are made up of prestressed concrete, or steel or cast iron posts, though teak sleepers are still in use on a few older lines. The pressurized concrete sleeper is in wide use today. Metal sleepers were extensively used before the advent of concrete sleepers. Indian Railways divides the country into four zones on the basis of the range of track temperature. The greatest temperature variations occur in Rajasthan.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT:    Indian Railways has a full-fledged organisation known as Research Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO), located at Lucknow for all research, designs and standardization tasks.

In August 2013, Indian Railways entered into a partnership with Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) to develop technology to tap solar energy for lighting and air-conditioning in the coaches. This would significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency for Indian Railways.

Recently it developed and tested the Improved Automated Fire Alarm System in Rajdhani Express Trains. It is intended that the system be applied to AC coaches of all regular trains.

LINKS TO ADJACENT COUNTRIES:    Existing rail links are given below -

1. Nepal – Break-of-gauge – Gauge conversion under uni-gauge project.

2. Pakistan – same Broad Gauge. Thar Express to Karachi and the more famous Samjhauta Express international train from Lahore, Pakistan to Amritsar (Attari).

3. Bangladesh – Same Broad Gauge. The Maitri Express between Dhaka and Kolkata started in April 2008 using the Gede-Darsana route, in addition to a Freight Train service from Singhabad and Petrapole in India to Rohanpur and Benapole in Bangladesh. A second passenger link between Agartala, India and Akhaura Upazila, Bangladesh was approved by the Government of Bangladesh and India in September 2011.


1. Bhutan – railways under construction – Same gauge.

2. Myanmar – Manipur to Myanmar (under construction).

3. Vietnam – On 9 April 2010, Former Union Minister of India, Shashi Tharoor announced that the central government is considering a rail link from Manipur to Vietnam via Myanmar.

4. Thailand – possible if Burma Railway is rebuilt.

TYPES OF PASSENGER SERVICES:     Trains are classified by their average speed. A faster train has fewer stops ("halts") than a slower one and usually caters to long-distance travel.

These are the non-stop (except for technical halts) point to point rail services introduced for the first time in 2009. They connect the metros and major state capitals of India and are faster than Rajdhani Express. They provide first AC, two-tier AC and three-tier AC accommodation. Some of them provide Sleeper Class accommodation.
These are air-conditioned trains linking major cities to New Delhi. They have high priority and are one of the fastest trains in India, travelling at an average speed of 130 km/h (82 mph). They have only a few stops. In the Railway budget of 2014, it was proposed that the speed of Rajdhani express, and Shatabdi Expresses would be increased up to 200 km/h.
These are fully air-conditioned trains linking major cities in the country. They have high priority and are one of the fastest trains in India, travelling at about 130 km/h (82 mph). They have only a few stops.
These are fully air-conditioned two floor express trains. They have high priority and are considered among fast trains in India.
The Shatabdi trains are air-conditioned intercity trains for travel during daytime. They have seats and executive class seats. Some of them have 3-tier AC berths. They are the fastest trains in India, travelling at about 130–160 km/h. India Railway is planning to introduce wi-fi faciltiy for New Delhi - Kalka Shatabdi Express.
These trains were started along with Duronto Express trains to provide air conditioned travel to youth of the country. Sixty percent of the seats of these trains were reserved for passengers between 18 – 45 years of age. These trains did not enjoy much success. Today these trains only operate on the Delhi - Howrah and Delhi - Mumbai routes.
Air-conditioned no-frills trains with seats and 3-tier Economy AC berths. The maximum speed is 130 km/h.
Jan Shatabdi Express are a more affordable variety of the Shatabdi Express, which have both AC and non-AC classes. The maximum speed is 130 km/h.
These are series of trains which provide super fast Express like connectivity to national capital Delhi. These trains have higher priority than Super Express / Mail.
These are trains travel at a speed greater than 100–120 km/h (60-75 mph). Tickets for these trains have an additional superfast surcharge.
These trains were introduced in honor of Ravindra Nath Tagore. Currently four pair of these trains operate in Indian Railways network.
These trains were started to commemorate 150th birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekanand in 2013. Currently four pair of Vivek Express run in country.
These trains are started to connect state capital to important cities in that state.
These are the most common kind of trains in India. They have more stops than their super-fast counterparts, but they stop only at relatively important intermediate stations.
These are slow trains that stop at most or every station along the route and are the cheapest trains. The trains generally have unreserved seating accommodation but some night trains have sleeper and 3-tier AC compartments. These also travel about 40-80 kmph.
These trains operate in the urban areasof Mumbai,  Delhi,  Kolkata,  Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune and between  Kanpur  and Lucknow, usually stop at all stations and have unreserved seating accommodation.
These trains are designed for city transport. Indian Railway constructed Kolkata Metro for the city of Kolkata.
Indian Railways also operate luxurious tourist trains like Palace on Wheels, Maharaja Express, The Golden Chariot, Royal Rajasthan on Wheels etc. Fairy Queen has also gained tourist attraction because it is the oldest steam engine in operation hauling luxurious train from Delhi to Alwar.

ACCOMMODATION CLASSES:       The following table lists the classes in operation. A train may not have all these classes.

1. Class 1A:    First class AC:     This is the most expensive class, where the fares are almost at par with air fare. There are eight cabins (including two coupes) in the full AC First Class coach and three cabins (including one coupe) in the half AC First Class coach. The coach has an attendant to help the passengers. Bedding is included with the fare in IR. This air conditioned coach is present only on popular routes and can carry 18 passengers (full coach) or 10 passengers (half coach). The sleeper berths are extremely wide and spacious. The coaches are carpeted, have sleeping accommodation and have privacy features like personal coupes. This class is available on broad gauge and meter gauge trains.

2. Class 2A:   AC-Two tier:    These air-conditioned coaches have sleeping berths across eight bays. Berths are usually arranged in two tiers in bays of six, four across the width of the coach and two berths long ways on the other side of the corridor, with curtains along the gangway or corridor. Bedding is included with the fare. A broad gauge coach can carry 48 passengers (full coach) or 20 passengers (half coach). This class is available on broad gauge and metre gauge trains.

3. Class FC:     First class:     Same as 1AC but without air conditioning. No bedding is available in this class. The berths are wide and spacious. There is a coach attendant to help the passengers. This class has been phased out on most of the trains and is rare to find. However narrow gauge trains to hill stations have this class.

4. Class 3A:    AC three tier:    Air conditioned coaches with 64 sleeping berths. Berths are usually arranged as in 2AC but with three tiers across the width and two long ways as before giving eight bays of eight. They are slightly less well-appointed, usually no reading lights or curtained off gangways. Bedding is included with fare. It carries 64 passengers in broad gauge. This class is available only on broad gauge.

5. Class 3E:    AC 3 tier (Economy):    Air conditioned coaches with sleeping berths, present in Garib Rath Trains. Berths are usually arranged as in 3AC but with three tiers across the width and three long ways. They are slightly less well-appointed, usually no reading lights or curtained off gangways. Bedding is not included with fare.

6. Class CC:    AC Chair Car:     An air-conditioned seater coach with a total of five seats in a row used for day travel between cities.

7. Class EC:    Executive Class Chair Car:    An air-conditioned coach with large spacious seats and legroom. It has a total of four seats in a row used for day travel between cities. This class of travel is only available on Shatabdi Express trains.

8. Class SL:    Sleeper Class:    The sleeper class is the most common coach on IR, and usually ten or more coaches could be attached. These are regular sleeping coaches with three berths vertically stacked. In broad gauge, it carries 72 passengers per coach.

9. Class 2S:    Seater Class:   Same as AC Chair car, but with bench style seats and without the air-conditioning. These may be reserved in advance or may be unreserved.

10. Class UR:    Unreserved:    The cheapest accommodation. The seats are usually made up of pressed wood in older coaches but cushioned seats are found in new coaches. These coaches are usually over-crowded and a seat is not guaranteed. Tickets are issued in advance for a minimum journey of more than 24 hours. Tickets issued are valid on any train on the same route if boarded within 24 hours of buying the ticket.

Other Railway Web Sites:

Zonal Railways
Production Unit
Corporate Sites
Educational & Research

The details of major concessions granted to different categories of persons on Indian Railways along with class and element of concession is given below: